Unit 1: Rigid Transformations and Congruence
Work with transformations of plane figures in grade 8 draws on earlier work with geometry and geometric measurement. Students began to learn about two- and three-dimensional shapes in kindergarten, and continued this work in grades 1 and 2, composing, decomposing, and identifying shapes. Students’ work with geometric measurement began with length and continued with area. Students learned to “structure two-dimensional space,” that is, to see a rectangle with whole-number side lengths as composed of an array of unit squares or composed of iterated rows or iterated columns of unit squares. In grade 3, students distinguished between perimeter and area. They connected rectangle area with multiplication, understanding why (for whole-number side lengths) multiplying the side lengths of a rectangle yields the number of unit squares that tile the rectangle. They used area diagrams to represent instances of the distributive property. In grade 4, students applied area and perimeter formulas for rectangles to solve real-world and mathematical problems, and learned to use protractors. In grade 5, students extended the formula for the area of rectangles to rectangles with fractional side lengths. In grade 6, students combined their knowledge of geometry and geometric measurement to produce formulas for the areas of parallelograms and triangles, using these formulas to find surface areas of polyhedra. In grade 7, students worked with scaled copies and scale drawings, learning that angle measures are preserved in scaled copies, but areas increase or decrease proportionally to the square of the scale factor. Their study of scaled copies was limited to pairs of figures with the same rotation and mirror orientation. Viewed from the perspective of grade 8, a scaled copy is a dilation and translation, not a rotation or reflection, of another figure.
In grade 8, students extend their reasoning to plane figures with different rotation and mirror orientations.
Through activities designed and sequenced to allow students to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them (MP1), students use and extend their knowledge of geometry and geometric measurement. They begin the unit by looking at pairs of cartoons, each of which illustrates a translation, rotation, or reflection. Students describe in their own words how to move one cartoon figure onto another. As the unit progresses, they solidify their understanding of these transformations, increase the precision of their descriptions (MP6), and begin to use associated terminology, recognizing what determines each type of transformation, e.g., two points determine a translation. They identify and describe translations, rotations, and reflections, and sequences of these. In describing images of figures under rigid transformations on and off square grids and the coordinate plane, students use the terms “corresponding points,” “corresponding sides,” and “image.” Students learn that angles and distances are preserved by any sequence of translations, rotations, and reflections, and that such a sequence is called a “rigid transformation.” They learn the definition of “congruent”: two figures are said to be congruent if there is a rigid transformation that takes one figure to the other. Students experimentally verify the properties of translations, rotations, and reflections, and use these properties to reason about plane figures, understanding informal arguments showing that the alternate interior angles cut by a transversal have the same measure and that the sum of the angles in a triangle is 180∘. The latter will be used in a subsequent grade 8 unit on similarity and dilations. Throughout the unit, students discuss their mathematical ideas and respond to the ideas of others (MP3, MP6).
Many of the lessons in this unit ask students to work on geometric figures that are not set in a real-world context. This design choice respects the significant intellectual work of reasoning about area. Tasks set in real-world contexts are sometimes contrived and hinder rather than help understanding. Moreover, mathematical contexts are legitimate contexts that are worthy of study. Students do have opportunities in the unit to tackle real-world applications. In the culminating activity of the unit, students examine and create different patterns formed by plane figures. This is an opportunity for them to apply what they have learned in the unit (MP4).
In this unit, several lesson plans suggest that each student have access to a geometry toolkit. These contain tracing paper, graph paper, colored pencils, scissors, ruler, protractor, and an index card to use as a straightedge or to mark right angles, giving students opportunities to develop their abilities to select appropriate tools and use them strategically to solve problems (MP5). Note that even students in a digitally enhanced classroom should have access to such tools; apps and simulations should be considered additions to their toolkits, not replacements for physical tools.