List of Common Terms
Advocacy:Is to advocate for, protect and advance the legal, human, and service rights of people with disabilities. Also, to represent people with disabilities to secure their human legal and service rights in accordance with federal mandates; and to assist people with disabilities in advocating for their human, legal, and service rights.
Benefits and Health:
Supplemental Security Income (SSI): Monthly benefits that are paid to people who have a disability and who have limited income and assets. Participants include individuals 65 years of age or older, individuals who are blind in both eyes, and individuals with a disability as described by the Social Security Administration. Parents income and resources are counted in the individual is under the age of 18. No previous work history is required.
Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI):
A program that workers, employers, and the self-employed pay for with their social security. Eligibility is based on a persons work history and the amount of monthly benefit is based on past earnings. Individuals who have never worked can earn SSDI is they are considered a Disabled Adult Child (DAC). In order to obtain DAC status, the individual must have a disability with an onset before the age of 22, and a parent with a FICA work record that is either retired/disabled themselves/deceased.
Provides medical coverage for persons with limited income and resources. Anyone can apply but depending on income and financial assets there may be a monthly “spend down” amount before a medical card is issued.
Another government medical coverage program designed to provide coverage to individuals age 65 and over and to individuals with disabilities. Participants must be 65 years of age or older who are also receiving SSA/SSI/federal employee. Also, individuals with ALS, individuals with end stage renal disease, and anyone receiving SSDI for 24 months qualifies.
Are an SSI provisions to help individuals with disabilities return to work. PASS lets individuals set aside money he or she owns to pay for items or services needed to achieve specific work goals without discontinuing benefits. Individuals can set aside money to start a business, for school expenses, equipment and tools, transportation, and uniform requests.
Ticket to Work:
Is an employment program for people with disabilities who are interested in going to work. The goal of the Ticket to Work program is to increase opportunities and choices for Social Security disability beneficiaries to obtain employment while still receiving SSI/SSDI. One’s benefits will be reduced by a fixed amount/rate. However, one will have the potential to earn more working than through benefits alone.
Medicaid Waiver Programs:
The waiver allows Medicaid funds to enable individuals with disabilities to reside in the living arrangements of their choice with the type and degree of support needed to increase independence in their home and community. These programs allow qualified Medicaid-eligible individuals to choose to live at home, able to determine the own level of support in an independent, community-based setting rather than being required to live in an intermediate care facility, nursing home, or other type of institution in order to receive benefits.
Education and Training
4 year college or university:
a residential or non-residential institution established to service students in order to obtain a bachelors degree or higher
2 year community college:
a nonresidential junior college established to serve a specific community offering associate degrees and certificate programs
Trade School/Vocational School:
a school offering instruction in one or more skills or semiskilled trades or occupations
a formal method of training a skilled occupation, craft of trade. During the apprenticeship period, the apprentice receives 2,000 hours or more of structured on-the-job training with at least 144 hours of related classroom instruction. Apprenticeship requires a written agreement between the program sponsor (employer) and the apprentice.
a certificate granted by a two year college on successful completion of the program of the study
a degree granted by a two year college on successful completion of the undergraduate’s course of studies
an academic degree conferred by a college or university upon those who complete the undergraduate curriculum
Work in a competitive labor market paid at or above the minimum wage. Work is without supports in an environment that employs both people with and people without disabilities to create an integrated setting.
Work in an integrated setting but with the support of a job coach. A job coach may be present for some or all of the day. As someone learns a job, the job coach may be slowly faded. This program is intended for people who may not be able to be independent in a competitive work environment.
Work within an environment designed for people with disabilities who are not able to perform in a competitive work environment. All other workers also have disabilities under close supervision. Wages may be determined based upon the percentage or amount of complete work.
A person who provides support to a person with a disability to help them learn or perform a job. A job coach does not perform the work of the employee but will guide and provide assistance to maintain job performance.
Supports within a competitive work environment without outside assistance (ex. Manager, co-worker, etc…).
A person who works to find employment specific to persons with disabilities. A job developer may assess needs, meet employers, create job opportunities, address reasonable accommodations, and match job seekers to potential employers.
Housing and Recreation
Little of no support services; on own or with family
Community Integrated Living Arrangement (CILA):
a network of support services built upon personalized support and case management. Clients line in a house or apartment with no live-in staff. Staff checks in with clients and assist them with meal planning and budgeting. Residents complete their own shopping, cooking, and housekeeping. Eight persons or fewer reside in this type of community-based setting.
Supported Living Arrangement (SLA):
these arrangements are for individuals that need intermittent support from staff. Staff does not generally reside with the residents. This program is similar to a CILA but it is generally located within the supervision of a larger support structure rather than in the community.
Community Living Facility (CLF):
refers to a program for clients who need training and guidance in most skilled areas (social, vocational, daily living, and mobility). Staff is available on-site, and the residence is usually a community-based apartment setting. The goal is to prepare residents for independent living.
Transition Living Facility (TLF):
This facility is similar to a CLF, but it is on a time-limited basis and used primarily for training purposes or as a transition to a more permanent residential option.
Intermediate Care Facility (ICF):
refers to a program for clients who need assistance with daily living and self-care skills. The facility provides 24 hour supervision, and residents often live in a dorm-like setting. Other services often include speech, social, prevocational, and hearing services. It does not provide skilled nursing care.
Intermediate Care Facility for the Developmentally Disabled (ICFDD):
refers to an ICF that includes 24 hour skilled nursing care
The Americans with Disabilities Act makes it unlawful to discriminate in employment against a qualified individual with a disability.
Age of Majority:
when a student reaches the age of majority, the rights of the parents legally transfer to the student. The following activities would shift from the parent to the student: notice of meetings, notice and consent for evaluation, right to invite participants, and notice and consent for special education services. The school must notify a student and their guardians of this shift one year prior.
is the process of naming those beneficiaries and managing the tax consequences of passing a caretaker’s wealth to the individual with a disability. For most families, planning means having a legal will drafted to ensure that your assets go to people you designate and to name a guardian for a minor or adult child with a disability who needs guardianship. If you die without a will, the state determines how your assets distributed and the probate court determines who serves as guardian of that child, even when there is one surviving parent. The probate court’s decision on a guardian may or may not be the same person that you would have chosen and your assets may not be distributed in the way you desired.
is a legal means of protecting children and adults deemed incompetent who cannot take care of themselves, make decisions that are in their own best interest, or handle their assets due to a physical or mental disability. When the court determines that a person is incapable of handling either their personal and/or financial affairs, a guardian is appointed. Parents, or other potential guardians, must carefully consider the individual with a disability’s individual circumstances, before beginning a competency proceeding.
Power of Attorney:
gives legal authority to another person to make property, financial, and other decisions for the individual. Powers of Attorney are often used for medical, financial, educational, property, or health decisions.
is an agreement under which money or other assets are held and managed by one person for the benefit of another. Different types of trusts may be created to accomplish specific goals. Each kind may vary in the degree of flexibility and control is offers. The common benefits that trust arrangements offer include: providing personal and financial safeguards for family and other beneficiaries; postponing or avoiding unnecessary taxes; allowing access to benefits; and meeting other social or commercial goals.
is a legal document by which a person regulates the rights of others over his or her property or family after death. A will is used as the instrument in a trust. Any person over the age of majority can draft their own will without the aid of an attorney.